Oxazoles are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing an oxygen atom and a nitrogen atom separated by one carbon atom. Oxazole derivatives have become increasingly important due to their use as intermediates for the preparation of new biological materials. The oxazole ring is present in many pharmacologically important compounds, including those used as antibiotics and antiproliferatives. The wide range of biological activities of oxazoles includes anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, analgesic, hypoglycemic, antifungal, antiproliferative, anti-tuberculosis, muscle relaxant and HIV inhibitor activity. In addition, oxazole derivatives are important synthetic intermediates and can be used as diversity scaffolds in combinatorial chemistry and as peptidomimetics.