Pyridines are heterocyclic six-membered aromatic compounds containing a single nitrogen atom. Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine. One of the three diazines (six-membered heterocyclics with two nitrogen atoms in the ring), it has the nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 in the ring. Pyrimidines are a class of important heterocycles and appear in many pharmaceutical molecules, naturally occurring bioactive compounds and chiral ligands in polysubstituted forms. The pyridine moiety is present in countless molecules with applications as varied as catalysis
, drug design, molecular recognition, and natural product synthesis. Pyridine derivatives have also been implicated as small molecule α-helical mimetics in the inhibition of protein-protein interactions, and functionally selective GABAA ligands. Halogenated pyridines in particular are useful building blocks
for various cross-coupling methodologies, including Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions.